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Yenziwa Njani ICarbon Fiber?

Yenziwa Njani ICarbon Fiber?

Ukwenziwa, ukusetyenziswa, kunye nekamva lemathiriyeli eyomeleleyo, ekhaphukhaphu

Ikwabizwa ngokuba yi-graphite fiber okanye i-carbon graphite, i-carbon fiber iqulethe imicu encinci ye-carbon element. Ezi fayibha zomelele kakhulu kwaye zomelele ngokugqithisileyo ngokobukhulu bazo. Enyanisweni, olunye uhlobo lwe<em>carbon fiber—i<em>carbon nanotube—lugqalwa njengeyona nto inamandla ekhoyo. Izicelo zefiber yeCarbon zibandakanya ukwakhiwa, ubunjineli, i-aerospace, izithuthi ezisebenza kakhulu, izixhobo zemidlalo kunye nezixhobo zomculo. Kwintsimi yamandla, i-carbon fiber isetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kwee-windmill blades, ukugcinwa kwegesi yendalo, kunye neeseli zepetroli zokuthutha. Kwishishini leenqwelomoya, inezicelo kuzo zombini iinqwelomoya zomkhosi kunye nezorhwebo, kunye neenqwelomoya zasemoyeni ezingenamntu. Ukuhlola i-oyile, isetyenziswa ekwenzeni amaqonga okomba amanzi anzulu kunye nemibhobho.

Iinyani ezikhawulezayo: I-Carbon Fiber Statistics

  • I-strand nganye ye-carbon fiber i-5 ukuya kwi-10 microns ububanzi. Ukukunika ingqiqo yokuba incinci kangakanani, i-micron enye (um) yi-0.000039 intshi. Umcu omnye wesilika yesigcawu udla ngokuba phakathi kweemicrons ezintathu ukuya kwezisibhozo.
  • Imicu yekhabhoni yomelele ngokuphindwe kabini kunentsimbi kwaye yomelele ngokuphindwe kahlanu njengentsimbi, (kwiyunithi nganye yobunzima). Kananjalo ziyakwazi ukumelana neekhemikhali kwaye zinokunyamezela ubushushu obuphezulu kunye nokwandiswa kwe-thermal ephantsi.

Iimpahla ezingekasilwa
Ifayibha yekhabhoni yenziwe ngeepolima zendalo, eziqulathe imitya emide yeeathom zecarbon. Uninzi lweefiber zekhabhoni (malunga ne-90%) zenziwe kwi-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) inkqubo. Isixa esincinci (malunga ne-10%) senziwa kwi-rayon okanye inkqubo ye-petroleum pitch.

Iigesi, ulwelo, kunye nezinye izinto ezisetyenziswa kwinkqubo yokuvelisa zidala iziphumo ezithile, iimpawu, kunye namabanga ekhabhoni fiber. Abavelisi be-Carbon fiber basebenzisa iifomyula zobunikazi kunye nokudibanisa izinto eziluhlaza kwizinto abazivelisayo kwaye ngokubanzi, baphatha ezi ziqulunqo njengeemfihlo zorhwebo.

Elona nqanaba liphezulu lecarbon fiber enemodyuli esebenzayo (isigxina okanye i-coefficient esetyenziselwa ukuchaza iqondo lamanani apho into enepropathi ethile, efana no-elasticity) iipropati zisetyenziswa kwizicelo ezinyanzelisayo ezifana ne-aerospace.

Inkqubo yokuVelisa
Ukudala i-carbon fiber ibandakanya zombini iinkqubo zeekhemikhali kunye nezomatshini. Iimathiriyeli ekrwada, ezaziwa ngokuba zii-precursors, zizotywa zibe yimisonto emide kwaye emva koko zifudunyezwe kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu kwindawo ye-anaerobic (engenayo ioksijini). Kunokuba utshise, ubushushu obugqithisileyo bubangela ukuba iiathom zefayibha zingcangcazele ngamandla kangangokuba phantse zonke iiathom ezingezizo ikhabhoni ziyakhutshwa.

Emva kokuba inkqubo ye-carbonization igqityiwe, i-fiber eseleyo yenziwe ngamatyathanga e-athomu e-carbon ende, adityaniswe ngokuqinileyo kunye ne-athomu ezimbalwa okanye ezingekho kwikhabhoni eziseleyo. Le micu iye ilukwe ibe lilaphu okanye idityaniswe nezinye izinto ezithi emva koko zibe yintsinga okanye zibunjwe zibe yile milo nobukhulu obufunwayo.

La macandelo mahlanu alandelayo aqhelekileyo kwinkqubo ye-PAN yokwenza i-carbon fiber:

  • Ukujikeleza. I-PAN ixutywa nezinye izithako ize iphothelwe ibe yimicu, ethi ihlanjwe ize yolulwe.
  • Ukuzinzisa. Iintsinga ziye zitshintshwe iikhemikhali ukuzinzisa ukuhlangana.
  • ICarbonizing. Iintsinga ezizinzileyo zifudunyezwa kubushushu obuphezulu kakhulu zenza iikristale zekhabhoni ezidityanisiweyo.
  • Ukunyanga uMphezulu. Umphezulu wemicu udityanisiwe ukuze kuphuculwe iipropati zokudibanisa.
  • Ubungakanani. Iintsinga ziyagqunywa zize zonyazwe kwii-bobbins, ezilayishwa koomatshini bokusonta abajija iintsinga zibe yimisonto yobukhulu obahlukeneyo. Kunokuba ilukwe ibe ngamalaphu, iintsinga zisenokwenziwa zibe yimathiriyeli eyintlanganisela, kusetyenziswa ubushushu, uxinzelelo, okanye ivacuum yokubopha imicu kunye nepolymer yeplastiki.

Iinanotubes zekhabhoni zenziwa ngendlela eyahlukileyo kunemicu yekhabhoni eqhelekileyo. Kuqikelelwa ukuba zomelele ngamaxesha angama-20 kunezandulelayo, iinanotubes zenziwa kwiziko ezisebenzisa iilaser ukufunxa amasuntswana ekhabhoni.

Imingeni yokuVelisa
Ukwenziwa kweentsinga zekhabhoni kuthwele imingeni emininzi, kuquka:

  • Isidingo sokubuyiselwa nokulungiswa okungabizi kakhulu
  • Iindleko zokuvelisa ezingapheliyo kwezinye izicelo: Ngokomzekelo, nangona iteknoloji entsha iphantsi kophuhliso, ngenxa yeendleko ezinqandayo, ukusetyenziswa kwe-carbon fiber kwishishini leemoto okwangoku kukhawulelwe ekusebenzeni okuphezulu kunye nezithuthi zokunethezeka.
  • Inkqubo yonyango yomphezulu kufuneka ilawulwe ngononophelo ukuphepha ukudala imingxuma ekhokelela kwimicu eneziphene.
  • Ulawulo olusondeleyo olufunekayo ukuqinisekisa umgangatho ongaguqukiyo
  • Imiba yezempilo kunye nokhuseleko kubandakanya ulusu kunye nokucaphuka ukuphefumla
  • I-Arcing kunye neemfutshane kwizixhobo zombane ngenxa ye-electro-conductivity eqinile ye-carbon fibers

Ikamva leCarbon Fiber
Njengoko itekhnoloji ye-carbon fiber iqhubeka nokuvela, amathuba e-carbon fiber aya kuhlukahluka kwaye anyuke. KwiZiko leTekhnoloji yaseMassachusetts, izifundo ezininzi ezigxile kwi-carbon fiber sele zibonisa isithembiso esikhulu sokwenza itekhnoloji entsha yokuvelisa kunye noyilo lokuhlangabezana nemfuno yoshishino olusakhulayo.

I-MIT iNjingalwazi yobuNjineli boMechanical uJohn Hart, uvulindlela we-nanotube, usebenze nabafundi bakhe ukuguqula iteknoloji yokuvelisa, kubandakanywa nokujonga izinto ezintsha eziza kusetyenziswa ngokubambisana nabashicileli be-3D yorhwebo. “Ndabacela ukuba bacinge nzulu ngeentsimbi; ukuba banokufumana umshicileli we-3-D engazange yenziwe ngaphambili okanye imathiriyeli eluncedo engenako ukuprintwa kusetyenziswa abashicileli bangoku,” ucacise watsho uHart.

Iziphumo zaba ngoomatshini bokuprinta iglasi etyhidiweyo, i-ice cream ethambileyo—kunye nemixube ye<em>carbon fiber. NgokukaHart, amaqela abafundi aphinde enze oomatshini abanokuphatha “indawo enkulu ye-parallel extrusion yeepolymers” kwaye benze “in situ optical scanning” yenkqubo yokushicilela.

Ukongeza, uHart usebenze kunye noMIT oDityaniswayo noNjingalwazi weChemistry uMircea Dinca kwintsebenziswano yeminyaka emithathu esandula kuqukunjelwa kunye ne-Automobili Lamborghini ukuphanda okunokwenzeka kwekhabhoni entsha kunye nezixhobo ezidibeneyo ezinokuthi ngenye imini "zenze ukuba umzimba opheleleyo wemoto ube. isetyenziswa njengenkqubo yebhetri,” kodwa ikhokelela “kwimizimba ekhaphukhaphu, eyomeleleyo, iziguquli ezisebenza kakuhle ngakumbi, ipeyinti ecekethekileyo, nokuphucula ukuhanjiswa kobushushu bololiwe bombane [kuko konke].”

Ngempumelelo eyothusayo elundini, ayimangalisi into yokuba imakethi ye-carbon fiber kuqikelelwa ukuba izakukhula ukusuka kwi-4.7 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ngo-2019 ukuya kwi-13.3 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ngo-2029, ngesantya sokukhula sonyaka (CAGR) se-11.0% (okanye ngaphezulu kancinci) ngaphezulu. ixesha elifanayo.

Imithombo

  • McConnell, uVicki. "Ukwenziwa kweCarbon Fiber." I-CompositeWorld. NgoDisemba 19, 2008
  • Sherman, uDon. "Ngaphaya kweCarbon Fiber: Isixhobo esilandelayo sokuphumelela sinamandla ngamaxesha angama-20." Imoto kunye noMqhubi. NgoMatshi 18, 2015
  • Randall, uDanielle. "Abaphandi be-MIT basebenzisana neLamborghini ukuphuhlisa imoto yombane yexesha elizayo." MITMECHE/KwiiNdaba: iSebe leKhemistri. NgoNovemba 16, 2017
  • "IMarike yeCarbon Fiber ngeRaw Material (PAN, Pitch, Rayon), Uhlobo lweFayibha (iNtombi enyulu, eRecycled), Uhlobo lweMveliso, iModulus, iSicelo (Isidibanisi, esingaxutywanga), Ukuphela kokusetyenziswa kweshishini (A & D, iMoto, Amandla omoya ), kunye Nommandla—Uqikelelo Lwehlabathi Lonke Ngowama-2029.” MarketsandMarkets™. NgoSeptemba 2019

Ixesha lokuposa: Jul-28-2021